Lawsuits filed on behalf of both US and Vietnamese veterans sought compensation for damages.
Agent Orange was to a lesser extent used outside Vietnam.
The active ingredient of Agent Orange was an equal mixture of two phenoxy herbicides – 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) – in iso-octyl ester form, which contained traces of the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).
When TCDD binds to Ah R, the protein moves to the nucleus, where it influences gene expression. began a full-scale production of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T and would have used it against Japan in 1946 during Operation Downfall if the war had continued. tested 1,100 compounds, and field trials of the more promising ones were done at British stations in India and Australia, in order to establish their effects in tropical conditions, as well as at the U. Between 19, trials were conducted in Tanganyika, at Kikore and Stunyansa, to test arboricides and defoliants under tropical conditions. considered the British precedent in deciding that the use of defoliants was a legal tactic of warfare.Several herbicides were discovered as part of efforts by the USA and the British to develop herbicidal weapons for use during World War II. Department of the Army contracted the botanist and bioethicist Arthur Galston, who discovered the defoliants later used in Agent Orange, and his employer University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana to study the effects of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T on cereal grains (including rice) and broadleaf crops. Army ran tests of various 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T mixtures at the Bushnell Army Airfield in Florida. By the end of the war, the relationship between the two countries was well established. The chemicals involved were 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and endothall (3,6-endoxohexahydrophthalic acid). Secretary of State Dean Rusk advised President John F.The Center for Disease Control and Prevention notes that in particular, there are higher rates of acute/chronic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, throat cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, Ischemic heart disease, soft tissue sarcoma and liver cancer.With the exception of liver cancer, these are the same conditions the U. Veterans Administration has determined may be associated with exposure to Agent Orange/dioxin, and are on the list of conditions eligible for compensation and treatment.The aftermath of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam resulted in massive legal consequences.
The United Nations ratified United Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72 and the Environmental Modification Convention.
These included 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), 2,4,5-T (coded LN-14, and also known as trioxone), MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1414B and 1414A, recoded LN-8 and LN-32), and isopropyl phenylcarbamate (1313, recoded LN-33). From these studies arose the concept of using aerial applications of herbicides to destroy enemy crops to disrupt their food supply. During 1952–53, the unit supervised the aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T over the Waturi peninsula in Kenya to assess the value of defoliants in the eradication of tsetse fly. Kennedy that the British had established a precedent for warfare with herbicides in Malaya. During the Vietnam War, between 19, the United States military sprayed nearly 75,700,000 liters (20,000,000 U. gal) of various chemicals – the "rainbow herbicides" and defoliants – in Vietnam, eastern Laos, and parts of Cambodia as part of the aerial defoliation program known as Operation Ranch Hand, reaching its peak from 1967 to 1969. The program was also a part of a general policy of forced draft urbanization, which aimed to destroy the ability of peasants to support themselves in the countryside, forcing them to flee to the U.
During the Malayan Emergency (1948–1960), Britain was the first nation to employ the use of herbicides and defoliants to destroy bushes, trees, and vegetation to deprive insurgents of concealment and targeting food crops as part of a starvation campaign in the early 1950s. In August of that year, the Republic of Vietnam Air Force conducted herbicide operations with American help. officials considered using it, pointing out that the British had already used herbicides and defoliants during the Malayan Emergency in the 1950s. Kennedy authorized the start of Operation Ranch Hand, the codename for the U. For comparison purposes, an olympic size pool holds approximately 2,500,000 L (660,000 U. S.-dominated cities, depriving the guerrillas of their rural support base. Spray runs were also conducted from trucks, boats, and backpack sprayers. Congress were told "crop destruction is understood to be the more important purpose ...
The chemical is capable of damaging genes, resulting in deformities among the offspring of exposed victims. Agent Orange also caused enormous environmental damage in Vietnam.
Over 3,100,000 hectares (31,000 km) of forest were defoliated.
Veterans began to file claims in 1977 to the Department of Veterans Affairs for disability payments for health care for conditions they believed were associated with exposure to Agent Orange, or more specifically, dioxin, but their claims were denied unless they could prove the condition began when they were in the service or within one year of their discharge.